OPERATING SYSTEMS AND UTILITIES

Operating system overview

1. An operating system (abbreviated OS) is a type of system software that acts as a mast controller for all the activities that take place within a computer system. It is one of the factors that determine your computer compatibilityand platform. The operating system interactswith application software, device drivers, and hardware to manage a computer’s resources. The term resource refers to any component that is required to perform work. For example, the processor is a resource. RAM, storage space, and peripherals are also resources.

Operating system manages different tasks:

2. –Managememory. OS allocates a specific area of RAM for each program that is open and running. OS is itself a program, so it requires RAM space too. A microprocessor works with data and executes instructions stored in RAM – one of your computer’s most important resources. When you want to run more than one program at a time, the OS has to allocate specific areas of memory for each program. When multiple programs are running, the OS must ensurethat instructions and data from one area of memory do not “leak” into an area allocated to another program. If an OS falls down on the job and fails to protect each program’s memory area, data can get corrupted, programs can “crash”, and your computer displays error messages.

3. –Manage processor resources. The operating system also controls the microprocessor – just at a slightly higher level. Every cycle of a computer’s microprocessor is a resource for accomplishing tasks. Many activities – called “processes” – compete for the attention of your computer’s microprocessor. OS must ensure that each activity “process” receives its share of microprocessor cycles. A computer can take advantage of performance-enhancing technologies such as multitasking, multithreading,multiprocessing, dual core or multiple processors.

4. –Keep track of storage resources. OS stores and retrieves files from your disks and CDs. It remembers the names and locations of all your files and keeps track of empty spaces where new files can be stored.

5. –Ensure that input and output proceed in an orderly manner. OS communicates with device driver software so that data can travel smoothlybetween the computer and these peripheral resources. OS uses ‘buffers’ to collect and hold data while the computer is busy with other tasks.

6. –Establish basic elements of the user interface. A user interface can be definedas the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other. Your computer’s user interface includes a display device, mouse, and keyboard that allow you to view and manipulate your computer environment. It also includes software elements, such as menus and toolbar buttons. A graphical user interface (GUI)features menus and icons that you can manipulate with the click of a mouse. A command-line interface requires you to memorize and type commands.

7. For nearly all PCs, servers, workstations, mainframes, and supercomputers, the operating system program is quite large, so most of it is stored on a hard disk. The operating system’s small bootstrap program is stored in ROM and supplies the instructions needed to load the operating system’s core into memory when the system boots. This core part of OS called the kernelprovides the most essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access. The kernel always stays in RAM all the time your computer is on. Other parts of OS, such as customization utilities, are loaded into RAM as they are needed.

8. Many operating systems provide helpful tools, called operating system utilities, that you can use to control and customize your computer equipment and work environment. They are typically accessed by using a GUI, such as the familiar Windows desktop. The most popular are: launch programs, manage files, get help, customize the user interface, and configure equipment.

9. One operating system might be better suited to some computing tasks than others. To provide clues to their strengths and weaknesses, operating systems are informally categorized using one or more of the following terms:

10. A single-user operating system expects to deal with one set of input devices – those that can be controlled by one user only.

11. A multiuser operating systemallows a single computer to deal with simultaneousinput, output, and processing requests from many users. One of its most difficult responsibilities is to schedule all the processing requests that a centralized computer must perform.

12. A network operating system provides communications and routing services that allow computers to share data, programs, and peripheral devices. The main difference between network OS and multiuser OS is that multiuser operating systems schedule requests for processing on a centralized computer, whereas a network operating system simply routes data and programs to each user’s local computer, where the actual processing takes place.

13. A desktop operating system is one that is designed for a personal computer. Typically, these operating systems are designed to accommodate a single user, but might also provide network capability.

14. Windows is the best-selling operating system. The number and variety of programs that run on Windows are unmatched by any other operating system, a fact that contributes to its dominant position as the most widely used desktop operating system.

15. Utility software is a type of system software that is designed to perform a specialized task, such as system maintenance or security. Utility software that does not come packaged with an operating system is often referred to as a third-party utility. In past years, antivirus software was a popular category of third-party utilities. With the recent influx of nuisance ads, intrusion attempts, and spam, utilities such as ad blockers, personal firewalls, and spam filters have also become best sellers. Filtering software is used by parents to block their children from objectionable Websites. Another popular category of utility software is system utilities. These utilities track down and fix disk errors, repair corrupted files, and give your PC a performance – enhancing tune-up.

16. A final group of utilities worth mentioning is designed for backing upand cleaning up hard disks, and shreddingfiles so they can’t be recovered. They can help you recover files deleted by mistake.

Comprehension check. Indicate the paragraph where the following ideas are found in the text.

1. Operating system’s main purpose is to control what happens behind the scene.

2. Your PC can sometimes recover from memory leak problems if you use the Ctl+Alt+Del key sequence to close the corrupted program.

3. The operating system must ensure that the microprocessor does not “spin its wheels” waiting for input while it could be working on some other processing projects.

4. Windows is installed on more than 80 % of the world’s personal computers.

5. The term “buffer” is a technical jargon for a region of memory that holds data waiting to be transferred from one device to another.

6. Many operating systems provide helpful tools, called operating system utilities, that you can use to control and customize your computer equipment and work environment.

Vocabulary practice

1. In the text find the opposites to the given words.

roughly shred disorganize monopolize stop succeed break

2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.

1. An operating system … a computer’s resources, such as RAM, storage space, and peripherals.

a) allocates b) defines c) manages d) accommodates

2. To … more than one program at a time, the operating system must allocate specific areas of RAM for each program.

a) store b) install c) fix d) run

3. A graphical user-interface provides a way to point and click a mouse to … menu options and manipulate objects that appear on the screen.

a) feature b) deal with c) select d) manage

4. Handheld devices, such as PDAs and smartphones typically … single-user operating systems.

a) feature b) retrieve c) include d) establish

5. OS communicates with device driver software so that data can travel … between the computer and peripheral resources.

a) roughly b) smoothly c) simultaneously d) primary

6. Desktop operating systems are designed to accommodate a single user, but might also provide network … .

a) variety b) security c) capability d) compatibility

3. Make three-word combinations using the words in columns and then fill in the gaps in the following sentences.

A: a) multiuser B: operating C: system

b) third user technologies

c) desktop enhancing interface

d) graphical operating system

e) performance party utilities

1. IBM’s OS/390 is one of the most popular mainframe … .

2. A computer can take advantages of … .

3. A … features menus and icons that you can manipulate with a click of a mouse.

4. A …, such as Windows, is designed for personal computers.

5. WinZip, WinAce are … that offer a variety of compression options.

4. Fill in the gaps in the text.

_1_ (computer/application) software tells the operating system what to do. The operating system tells the _2_ (device/tool) drivers, device drivers tell the _3_ (software/hardware), and the hardware actually does the work. The operating system_4_(interacts/competes) with application software, device drivers, and hardware to _5_ (manage/define) a computer’s _6_ (resources/compatibility).

The core part of an operating system is called the _7_ (kernel/cycle). In addition to this core, many operating systems _8_ (provide/schedule) helpful tools, called _9_(utilities/capabilities).

Speaking. Discuss the following questions.

1. What is an operating system?

2. What does an operating system do?

3. How does an operating system manage processor resources?

4. Why does an operating system manage memory?

5. Where is the operating system stored?

6. What are utilities? What are the most popular ones?

7. How does the operating system affect the user interface?

Text C

Reading. Read the text and try to guess the meaning of the words in bold. Check your variants in the dictionary.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE

Most computers include some basic word processing, e-mail, and Internet access software, but computer owners want additional software to increase their computer’s productivity, business, learning, or entertainment capabilities.

Document production software

This software assistsyou with composing, editing, designing, printing, and electronically publishing documents. The three most popular types of document software are: word processing, desktop publishing, and Web authoring.

Word processing software, such as Microsoft Word gives you the ability to create, spell-check, edit, and format a document on the screen before you commit it to paper.

Desktop publishing software (abbreviated DTP) has sophisticated features to help you produce professional-quality output for newspapers, newsletters, brochures, magazines, and books.

Web authoring software helps you design and develop customized Web pages that you publish electronically on the Internet. It provides easy-to-use tools for composing the text for a web page, assemblinggraphical elements, and automatically generating HTML tags.

Document production software makes it easy to let your ideas flow because it automatically handlesmany tasks as “word wrap”, a spelling checker. It offersseveral features that can improve the quality of your writing. They are: a thesaurus, a grammar checker, a readability formula, a Search and Replace. The “look” of your final document depends on several formatting factors, such as font style, paragraph style, and page layout. Document production software allows you to work more productively.

Spreadsheet Software

Spreadsheet software can create an on-screen worksheet, based on a grid of columns and rows. A spreadsheet uses rows and columnsof numbers to create a model or representation of a real situation. It provides a sort of “blank canvas” on which you can create numeric models by simply “painting” values, labels, and formulas. A spreadsheet is similar to a “smart” piece of paper that automatically adds up columns of numbers you write on it.. Today, spreadsheet software, such as Microsoft Excel, provides tools to create electronic spreadsheets. As an added bonus, spreadsheet software helps you turn your data into a variety of colorful graphs. It also includes special data-handling features that allow you to sort data, search for data that meets specific criteria, and print reports. Spreadsheets are popular with accountants and financial managers who deal with paper-based calculations. Because it is easy to experiment with different numbers, spreadsheet software is particular useful for what-if analysis. The disadvantage of spreadsheet software is that – aside from a few predesigned templates– you are responsible for entering formulas and selecting functions for calculations. If you don’t know the formulas or don’t understand the functions, you are out of luck.

In contrast to spreadsheet software, “number crunching” software provides a structured environment dedicated to a particular number crunching tasks, such as statistical analysis, mathematical modeling, or money management.

Database Software

A database is simply a collection of data that is stored on one or more computers. It can contain any sort of data. Database software helps you enter, find, organize, update, and report information stored in a database. Microsoft Access, FileMaker Pro, and askSam are three of the most popular examples of database software for personal computers. Database software stores data as a series of records, which are composed of fields that hold data. A record holds data for a single entity – a person, place, or event. A field holds one item of data relevantto a record. Your database software can help you print reports, export data to other programs, convert the data to other formats such as HTML.

Whether you print, import, copy, save, or transmit the data you find in databases, it is your responsibility to use it appropriately. Never introduce inaccurate information into a database.

Graphics Software

Graphics software is designed to help you create, manipulate, and print graphics. Some graphics software products specialize in a particular type of graphic, while others allow you to work with multiple graphics formats. If you are really interested in working with graphics, you will undoubtedly end up using more than one graphics software product. The most popular are paint software, photo editing software, and drawing software, CAD (computer-aided design) software, and presentation software.

Video editing software provides a set of tools for transferring video footage from a camcorder to a computer, clipping out unwanted footage, assembling video segments in any sequence, adding special visual effects, and adding a sound track. DVD authoring software offers tools for creating DVD with Hollywood-style menus.

A software suite is a collection of application software sold as a single package.

Educational software helps you learn and practice new skills. It is available for such diverse educational endeavors as learning languages, training yourself to use new software, how to play the piano or guitar, and improving keyboarding skills. Exam preparation software is available for standardized tests.

Reference software provides a collection of information and a way to access that information. This type of software includes massive amount of data. The reference software category spans a wide range of applications – from encyclopedias to medical references, from map software to trip planners, and from cookbooks to telephone books. The options are as broad as the full range of human interests.

Computer games are the most popular type of entertainment software. Music software is represented by audio editing software, CD ripper software, audio encoding software, ear training software.

Comprehension check. Choose the ending for each sentence from the two versions given.

1. You can vary the font style selecting character formatting attributes, such as

a) italics, bold, underline, etc. b) layout, headers, frames, etc.

2. A thesaurus can help you find

a) opposites for a word. b) synonyms for a word.

3. In a worksheet,

a) each column is numbered and each row is lettered.

b) each column is lettered and each row is numbered.

4. Mathematical modeling software helps you

a) visualize the product of complex formulas.

b) analyze large sets of data to discover patterns.

5. Database software helps you

a) learn and practice new skills. b) enter and organize information.

6. A software suite is

a) a collection of application software sold as a single package.

b) a collection of data stored on one or more computers.

Vocabulary practice

1. Which word does not belong to the group?

a) assist, help, edit, aid;

b) contain, select, choose, pick;

c) relevant, additional, supplementary, extra;

d) spreadsheet, database, Linux, graphics;

e) handle, deal with, assemble, manage;

f) generate, update, form, create.

g) improve, search for, upgrade, enhance

2. Fill in the missing words choosing from the variants given.

1. Various kinds of document product software provide tools for creating and … printed and web-based materials.

a) formatting b) sorting c) assembling d) transmitting

2. Spreadsheet software provides a sort of “blank canvas” on which you can create numeric … by simply “painting” values, labels, and formulas.

a) columns b) sequences c) models d) features

3. Database software stores data as a series of … and allows you to establish relationships between different types of records.

a) templates b) items c) entities d) records

4. CD ripper software … files from an audio CD to your computer’s hard disk.

a) edits b) transfers c) formats d) sorts

5. DVD authoring software … you to add Hollywood style menus to digital videos.

a) lets b) makes c) allows d) helps

6. The reference software category spans a wide … of applications.

a) entity b) sequence c) range d) circuit

3. Transform the following sentences without any change in meaning. Use the prompts as they are given (words in brackets, parts of sentences).

1. Most document production software includes a spelling checker.

A spelling checker is mostly …

2. Word processing offers several features that can improve the quality of writing (to enhance).

3. You may not be a composer or a musician to have a use for music software.

Neither … nor …

4. Many types of CAD software is available (get access).

5. Instead of typing data into a database you can also use data from a commercial database (import).

… than … you can …

6. If you are interested in working with graphics, you end up using more than one graphics software product (combine).

One who …

4. Fill in the gaps in the text.

The three most popular types of document production software include word processing, _1_, and Web authoring. _2_ software is similar to a “smart” piece of paper that automatically adds up the _3_ of numbers you write on it. You can use it to make other calculations, too, based on simple equations that you write or more complex, built-in _4_. Because it’s so easy to experiment with different numbers, this type of software is particular useful for _5_ analyses. _6_ software helps you store, find, organize, update, and report information stored in one or more tables. When two sets of records are _7_, database software allows you to access data from both tables at the same time. A software _8_ is a “bundled” collection of application software sold as a single package.

Speaking. Discuss the following questions.

1. How does document production software help me turn my ideas into sentences and paragraphs?

2. What if I am a bad speller?

3. What features of document product software can improve my writing?

4. What is a spreadsheet?

5. What other “number-crunching” software is available?

6. What is a database?

7. What is the best –selling entertainment software?

8. What is a software suite?

Text D

Reading. Read the text and try to guess the meaning of the words in bold. Check your variants in the dictionary.


6862547268778317.html
6862587757320705.html
    PR.RU™